So, what happens when there’s a flood that causes damages to homes? First, affected homeowners and renters will need to determine if their home insurance includes flood protection. If it doesn’t, the provincial/territorial and federal governments work together to offer affected homeowners and renters financial assistance.
However, Disaster Financial Assistance is only available to residents who cannot buy flood insurance coverage, which is often the case for those in high-risk areas. If flood insurance is reasonably available to a resident but they choose not to purchase it, they would be ineligible for Disaster Financial Assistance and their application to the government would likely be denied.
The amount of financial assistance is determined on a “dollar-per-capita” formula. The first dollar per capita of damages is a provincial/territorial responsibility. Damages beyond that threshold level are eligible for federal assistance. This financial assistance is paid to the provinces and territories in need, not to individuals affected by the disaster. It is up to the provincial/territorial government to divide the funds amongst individuals. As a result, the applicable limits per loss may vary from one location to the next.
The federal government has paid out more than $3.4 billion dollars since its inception in 1970. Some examples are the Alberta floods in 2005, the 2003 British Columbia wildfires, and the 2006 flood in Newfoundland.
Details of the financial assistance programs by province/territory follow.
When a disaster occurs in British Columbia, the provincial government may declare those affected to be eligible for Disaster Financial Assistance (DFA). It’s important to note that the DFA program is only available if the loss could not be insured or other assistance programs are not available. The DFA program is intended to help replace or restore essential items and property destroyed or damaged, back to pre-disaster condition. Highlights of the program follow.
- You need to show that the affected property is your principal residence. Owners of damaged rental properties must apply and qualify as a small business.
- You are responsible for the first $1,000 of an eligible loss.
- For losses beyond the first $1,000, 80% of the loss amount will be covered up to a maximum of $300,000.
- Assistance is not available for seasonal or recreational properties, hot tubs, patios, pools, garden tools, landscaping, luxury items (like jewelry, fur coats and collectibles), and recreational items (like bicycles).
- You will need to submit an application to Emergency Management BC within 90 days of the date that the DFA program was authorized.
For full details, see BC Disaster Financial Assistance.
When a disaster occurs in Alberta, the municipal government applies to the province for assistance on behalf of its citizens. If the province approves the request, a Disaster Recovery Program (DRP) is set up to help people whose property was damaged. The province will only approve requests if the event is considered extraordinary, insurance is not available to cover all damages and losses, and the event is widespread.
TThe DRP will cover some the costs of returning essential property to its pre-disaster condition. Beginning in 2021, the funding is capped at $500,000 per application for eligible costs. The assistance is also limited to one application per property, even if that property transfers ownership and even if the assistance provided is under $500,000. This means the DRP will only respond once per home, for no more than $500,000, and it will not respond again to future disasters – even if the home is sold to a new owner.
Eligible assistance for homeowners and renters may include:
- A re-establishment assistance grant of $3,000 for each adult, and $750 for each child under the age of sixteen years, up to a family maximum of $7,500.
- Financial assistance of uninsured costs for the replacement of, or repairs to, destroyed or severely damaged homes to pre-disaster functional condition.
- Financial assistance for the replacement of uninsured items essential for everyday living, including the cost of clean-up.
The DRP functions under a cost-sharing arrangement; the Government of Alberta will provide 90% of eligible disaster assistance, with the remaining 10% covered by the applicant.
The DRP is meant to be a last resort; homeowners who can cover disaster recovery costs on their own may opt out of the DRP and save their one-time assistance for a future, more significant disaster.
From 2021 on, the Government of Alberta will post on its website a list of properties that have received DRP funding. This will allow prospective home buyers to look up whether or not the home is eligible for DRP assistance in the future.
Alberta’s government urges homeowners to ensure that they are adequately insured, and aware of the disaster risks that their home faces.
For full details, see Alberta Government Disaster financial assistance and recovery support.
After a disaster, the municipal government must apply to the provincial government for assistance under the Provincial Disaster Assistance Program (PDAP). PDAP is not a substitute for private insurance nor does it provide full compensation for losses. PDAP provides assistance to return property to its pre-disaster value. It does not provide financial assistance for drought or fire-related losses. Highlights of the program follow.
- You need to show that affected property is your principal residence. Seasonal cottages are not eligible.
- Landlords may claim damages to the property as well as repair costs, if they meet the small business criteria.
- Items must be uninsurable, and considered “essential” (e.g. beds, essential furnishings and clothing, furnaces, water heaters, computers and televisions).
- You are responsible for 5% of the eligible expenses and the remaining 95% is payable by PDAP.
- You, as a homeowner or renter, are eligible for compensation up to $240,000.
- GST and PST are not covered.
- Improvements and upgrades are not covered, unless required due to new codes or standards, and only if upgrade is directly related to eligible repair under PDAP.
- Certain items are limited, such as one television per claim, and one fridge per claim.
- You are responsible for protecting your property as much as possible. If you have not taken sufficient measures to protect damaged property from further damage or deterioration, PDAP may deny your claim, or reduce the amount of coverage available.
- You must provide true, accurate, and complete information relating to your claim. If you knowingly provide false information or omit information, PDAP may deny the claim entirely, and/or recover any payments already made.
For full details, see Saskatchewan Provincial Disaster Assistance Program.
If a disaster strikes in Manitoba, Disaster Financial Assistance (DFA) can be made available for eligible costs. DFA is intended to provide financial assistance to restore property to a habitable and functional state. Highlights of the program follow.
- Homeowners can apply for assistance for damage to their building and personal possessions, for their principal residence only. Tenants may apply for damages to personal possessions only.
- Items must have been uninsurable.
- Costs cannot be recovered from any other program. Any losses that are recoverable by law are not eligible.
- Items must be considered “essential”. Luxury items, recreational property, landscaping, fencing (other than farm fencing) are not covered.
- You will not be covered for lost income or opportunity, inconveniences, normal operating costs, or for upgrading existing facilities.
- You can claim a maximum of $240,000 per claim.
- DFA will pay 80% of the eligible costs and losses. Payments may be reduced if funds are received from other sources.
For full details, see Manitoba Disaster Financial Assistance.
The Ontario Disaster Relief Assistance Program (ODRAP) is an assistance program designed to help municipalities, individuals, farmers, small business, and non-profit organizations after a natural disaster. The intention is to cover the costs of returning essential items to pre-disaster condition. ODRAP is not intended to be an alternative or a substitute for insurance.
The ODRAP states that in the event of a natural disaster, individuals are expected to bear the initial responsibility for their losses. If the losses are so great that individuals cannot cope on their own, the municipality and the community at large are expected to provide support. Ontario is the only province in Canada that requires victims of a disaster to raise their own money.
General assistance helps victims restore essential furnishings and property to pre-disaster condition. Payments may be up to 90% of adjusted claim amounts, however, the final amount paid is determined by how much money is fundraised. For each dollar fundraised by the community, the province will match up to two dollars. Payments may be reduced if not enough money is fundraised.
You may be eligible for assistance if:
- You are within the declared disaster area and suffered losses directly related to the disaster.
- Your losses are not covered by insurance.
- You are a private property owner or tenant.
- Your losses are considered eligible losses and costs under the ODRAP program.
Eligible losses include:
- Costs of restoration, repair or replacement to pre-disaster condition of primary residence (e.g. roof, chimney, floors, walls, wall coverings, plumbing, heating and electrical).
- Costs for cleanup of property for safety reasons or to provide access (e.g. mould and debris removal).
- Costs for restoration, repair or replacement of basic furniture or movables damaged as a result of the disaster (e.g. major appliances, essential clothing and furniture).
Ineligible costs include:
- Non-essential furnishings.
- Home entertainment equipment.
- Recreational items.
- Sports equipment.
- Landscaping and private roads.
- Personal injuries.
For full details, see Ontario Disaster Relief Assistance Program.
If there is an actual or imminent disaster In Quebec that puts your safety and your property at risk, you may be eligible for the Financial Assistance to Disaster Victims (FADV) program. In order to be eligible, belongings must be considered essential, and must be uninsurable. Claims may also be made under the FADV program for temporary shelter, and emergency response measures. Highlights of the program follow.
- Up to $125 per day (to a maximum of $5,000) for materials and labor-related to urgent preventive measures to protect your property.
- Up to $20 per day (from the 4th to the 100th day of evacuation) for extra housing/food expenses for each resident, if you are asked by the authorities to evacuate your uninhabitable principal residence due to a disaster.
- Up to $50 per person for clothing if you were unable to take clothing with you when evacuated, and up to $150 per person for winter clothing if during the cold season.
- Up to $1,000 for moving/storage expenses if personal property had to be moved/stored as a result of a disaster.
- Financial assistance up to 90% of reasonable costs incurred for temporary work, such as temporarily restoring electricity.
- Financial assistance may be available for up to 90% of the cost of mitigation measures, such as installing a sump pump or relocating electrical service out of vulnerable areas of the home.
- For your principal residence, if affected by an eligible disaster, assistance may be available to cover the costs of: (1) the emergency work to ensure the safety of the residents and allow repair of the principal residence; (2) the damage caused to the principal residence and in the following essential rooms: living room, kitchen, bathroom, laundry room and bedrooms permanently occupied by family members; and, (3) the repairs to the access road essential to your principal residence, to allow minimal and safe access to that residence.
- For damages to principal residence and access road, you may be eligible for the lesser of: (1) 80% of the eligible damage to principal residence; (2) the amount of the municipal assessment, up to a limit of $150,000; or, (3) 100% of the cost of emergency or temporary work over $500. In some cases, you may use these funds for a departure allowance or for immunization or moving of your residence. In that case, payment would equal 100% of the amount of the damage, but not exceeding the maximum amount stipulated by the program. You may be eligible for up to an additional $25,000 for demolition and disposal of the debris.
- For essential belongings, you may obtain financial assistance for the repair or replacement. Total damage must be over $100.
Effective April 15, 2019, the government of Quebec modified this program to help encourage homeowners who experience successive flood disasters to relocate elsewhere or mitigate future occurrences. Key points of this change are as follows.
- If the sum of the assistance paid out over time is equal to or greater than 50% of the home’s new cost (or $100,000, whichever is less), a homeowner who chooses to relocate elsewhere may receive up to $200,000 of the home’s new cost.
- It is important to note that, once this 50% / $100,000 threshold is reached, the homeowner must carefully decide whether to use the financial assistance to relocate elsewhere, or to repair the home. Whichever option the homeowner chooses, the government will not provide financial assistance for any future flooding at that location.
For full details, see Quebec Financial Assistance to Disaster Victims.
In Nova Scotia, the Disaster Financial Assistance (DFA) program is available to help local residents, farmers, small businesses and non-profit organizations recover from damage due to an emergency. Nova Scotia provides assistance under an agreement with the federal government, subject to its guidelines. Highlights of the program follow.
- Damage to your home must be uninsurable.
- Maximum payable per application is $80,000 for individuals.
- Applications are subject to a $1,000 deductible.
- Financial assistance is the lessor of the amount of the total eligible damage (over the $1,000 deductible) and the maximum amount payable under the program.
- Assistance is provided only to restore property to its immediate pre-disaster condition.
- Improvements done to reduce exposure in future, may be covered to a maximum of 15% of the eligible damage. Considered on a case-by-case basis.
- Eligible household goods may be replaced with basic models of such items.
- Items may be repaired or replaced, whichever is the least costly option.
- Structures will be repaired to pre-disaster condition, including costs to meet the prevailing building code.
- If the structure is beyond repair, assistance will be limited to the value of the property as indicated by the property assessment at the time of the loss.
- Casual labor provided by the owner and immediate family members to clean-up the damaged property will be eligible at the provincial minimum wage hourly rate up to a maximum of 100 total hours, if substantiated by a damage appraisal report.
- No coverage is provided for lost earnings if you are unable to work as a result of the emergency.
- Privately owned roads are not covered by DFA.
For full details, see Nova Scotia Disaster Financial Assistance.
In New Brunswick, the government may establish a Disaster Financial Assistance program to respond to the most urgent needs of affected residents in a disaster. Highlights of the program follow.
- Must be an event which is not insurable at a reasonable cost.
- No third party can be held accountable
- There is significant widespread damage.
- $200,000 per household for structural damages to property, which is over and above the cost of losses to eligible contents.
- If the structure sustains damage from one event valued at 50% or more than the home’s value, the homeowner could be eligible for buy-out. For multiple events, such as flooding, the threshold is 80%.
- $1,000 deductible for individual homeowners.
- Basic repairs of structural damage to a family homes.
- Appliances (e.g. refrigerator, stove, washer and dryer) that could not be removed from flood danger.
- Costs of clean-up, such as rental of fans, carpet cleaning machines, etc.
- Lost food.
- Driveway and retaining wall repairs.
- An advance of $4,000 may be available if structural damage is significant.
Not eligible for DFA:
- Losses covered by insurance, recoverable through legal action, or covered by other government programs.
- Seasonal residences or recreational equipment such as boats, all-terrain vehicles, travel trailers.
- Outbuildings such as sheds, barns or garages.
- Erosion or landscaping.
- Luxury items such as jewelry.
- Non-essential items.
For full details, see New Brunswick Disaster Financial Assistance.
Prince Edward Island
If a natural disaster occurs in Prince Edward Island, the province may apply for assistance through the federal Disaster Financial Assistance Arrangements program. A disaster recovery program may be implemented, which could include providing financial assistance to residents and small business owners. This program is available when the natural disaster has broad economic and community impacts.
For full details, see Prince Edward Island Financial Assistance Programs.
Newfoundland and Labrador
In Newfoundland and Labrador, if a natural disaster occurs, assistance may be provided through the Newfoundland and Labrador Disaster Financial Assistance Program (NL-DFAP). The program is designed to provide basic financial assistance to individuals, small businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, and farm operations. Damage must be widespread and caused by an abnormal event, like flooding or landslide, that is not as a result of negligence or deterioration. Highlights of the program follow.
- Will restore or repair property to pre-disaster condition.
- Only essential items will be covered.
- Assistance cannot be used to top up assistance received under any other programs.
- Damage to a principal residence may be eligible, and maximum amounts may be established by the provincial government.
- Damage to essential contents, in a principal residence only, will be covered.
- Non-principal residences are not covered, unless they qualify as a small business.
- Indication of property neglect may reduce the overall amount of the eligible claim.
- Reasonable effort must be made by the claimant to reduce the effects of the disaster.
- Damage to structures built before the area was designated as a flood zone will be eligible for disaster assistance funding. Damage to property built, or additions or extensions added to property, in an area after it was designated as a flood zone will not be eligible.
Examples of damage or loss not covered by NL-DFAP:
- Lost income.
- Any damage which is reasonably insurable.
- Vehicles and recreational machines such as skidoos, snow mobiles, all-terrain vehicles.
- Non-resident property such as seasonal, secondary, and recreational properties.
- Repairing roads whose sole purpose is to provide access to or within private recreational areas.
- Non-essential and luxury items.
- Damage/loss which occurs in a designated flood zone.
- Sewer backup is not eligible as it is an insurable peril.
For full details, see Newfoundland and Labrador Disaster Financial Assistance Program.
If a natural disaster occurs in the Yukon, the territory may apply for assistance through the federal Disaster Financial Assistance Arrangements program. A disaster recovery program may be implemented, which could include providing financial assistance to residents and small business owners. This program is available when the natural disaster has broad economic and community impacts.
For full details, see Yukon Recovery.
When a disaster occurs in the Northwest Territories, financial assistance may be available to affected individuals and small businesses through the Disaster Assistance Policy (DAP). This assistance is intended to help those affected recover from the disaster, and to restore damaged property to pre-disaster condition. Highlights of the program follow.
- The event must be an emergency.
- Damage is widespread, affecting a significant number of people or properties.
- Health, safety, and welfare of the affected residents are at risk.
- Emergency operations are conducted.
- Serious efforts must be made by residents to protect property and minimize risk.
- Coverage will be for no more than 80% of your loss, subject to a maximum of $100,000.
Eligible costs may include:
- Principal residence (and ancillary structures) and essential possessions contained inside.
- Items essential to hunting and trapping, providing the claimant relies on hunting and trapping for a significant part of his or her income.
Examples of ineligible costs:
- Items which could have been insured (insurance must have been readily available and at a reasonable cost).
- Costs recoverable through legal action.
- Losses eligible for financial assistance under any other program.
- Non-essential items, such as summer cottages, furs, jewellery, art, landscaping and fencing.
- Costs which could have been prevented by means available to persons affected prior to the disaster.
For full details, see Northwest Territories Disaster Financial Assistance.
If a natural disaster occurs in Nunavut, the territory may apply for assistance through the federal Disaster Financial Assistance Arrangements program. A disaster recovery program may be implemented, which could include providing financial assistance to residents and small business owners. This program is available when the natural disaster has broad economic and community impacts.
For full details, see Nunavut Emergency Management.
This approach to residential flood insurance has been criticized by many residents who had to rely on the government’s disaster financial assistance programs. These programs do not fully indemnify residents and will only provide assistance for the essentials. Moreover, residents are responsible for managing the claims/restoration processes on their own. The government only provides financial assistance to those who qualify.
Demand for a better approach to flood insurance increased as a result of the 2013 floods in Alberta and Ontario. Canadians want broader flood insurance protection as is offered in virtually all other developed countries in the world.